History 271 Paper

 

 

  1. After the Civil war, the Southern infrastructure was almost completely destroyed. Cities and farm fields had also been destroyed. This led to the destruction of the familiar social order, and thus slaves were now free and with the same rights as everyone else. The main problem the slaves faced was lack of food. Since they were now free, the slaves demanded wages if they were to work in farms, however, the owners did not have money to pay them until the harvest came in.
  2. After the Civil War, the southerners land was destroyed, their political institutions became overrun by outsiders, their economy was transitioning and their society had lost its balance. Their lands remained uncultivated as former slaves became free which further imposed a financial strain on the southerners.
  3. Lincoln’s plan was to offer the south and the former confederate’s pardon or amenity. According to Lincoln, Southern states if having a ten percent vote from its citizens would be reinstated into the union and a new construction would be written for the state. Johnson’s plan was similar to Lincoln’s but Johnson sought to please the congress and the Radical Republicans. To achieve this, Johnson started confiscating land from the wealthy aristocratic Southerners. Moreover, he added that for ex-confederates that were worth more than twenty thousand dollars, they would have to be pardoned by the President himself. The Radical Republicans on the other hand, sought to punish the south. They created the black codes and even suggested that black remain in the south as the whites moved to the North.
  4. Lincoln’s death led to a series of unfortunate events on the success of the reconstruction. Without Lincoln, the United States was unable to come up with an appropriate solution to the reconstruction era. His death marked an extended period of discrimination, segregation, racism and fight for equal rights under the constitution.
  5. Radical reconstruction was emphasized by Radical Republicans who emphasized on total destruction of the confederacy’s power. The republicans were angry and resentful to the South for separating from the Union and going to war. They refused accept the South back into the union and wanted them to be punished for their actions.
  6. The 13th, 14th and 15th amendments are collectively referred to as the civil war Amendments. The 13th Amendment banned slavery and involuntary servitude except in cases of punishment for crimes. The 14th amendment defined a United States citizen as anyone who was born or naturalized in the U.S. The 15th amendment prohibited the government from denying any U.S citizens the right to vote on the basis of color, race and past servitude.
  7. Conflict arose between landowners and freed slaves who sought economic autonomy and independence. The freed slaves had initially expected the government to give them a certain amount of land as compensation for slavery, however, when this did no happen, sharecropping emerged. This was a system in which black people would rent small potions of land and give the owner a potion of their harvest at the end of the season.
  8. According to Booker T., blacks needed to stop agitating for equal voting and civil rights not only for economic gains but also to reduce the anti-black violence. On the other hand, Dubois believed that equality with whites was the most important facto. Dubois felt that black people should educate themselves and in the liberal tradition just like white people.
  9. Paleotechnology refers to ancient technology that shaped the path to the modern technology. Paleotechnology greatly contributed to industrial growth through introduction of new manufacturing processes in the period which increased the speed of production of goods and services.
  10. Corporations had global interests which ensured that the major corporations joined in the railroad and ship companies in order to ensure infrastructure grew. This contributed a great deal to industrialization.
  11. The three C’s include Conservation of natural resources, Control of Corporations and Consumer protection. These sought to protect the middle class who were involved in attacking the plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting the businesses from extreme demands of the laborers.
  12. Horizontal integration involves incorporating other assets, companies or infrastructures of the same industry in the same level of production. Vertical integration on the other hand is the expansion into other operations in order to reduce the firm’s dependence on other firms in the production and distribution processes.
  13. A tariff is a tax levied on imported goods and services in order to prevent over flooding a country’s market with imported goods. The government and domestic companies are for tariffs because they help to raise a country’s revenue and also protect the domestic market to ensure that domestic industries remain in play. Exporting countries are against tariffs and may reciprocate by imposing higher tariffs thus resulting in trade wars.
  14. First, the subsidies ensured that the workers were paid per mile. To earn more money, the workers started constructing winding roads. Second, they used cheap and light iron rails. Third, since trees were scarce, workers were paid for the trees delivered, however, the severe scarcity sometimes led to the use of fragile cotton trees.
  15. Hill’s success can be associated with the fact that he looked at the future, something the other railroad builders did not. He studied the areas through which the railroad would pass through and planed the exact route on which the track would be best laid.
  16. When passengers found out that they could get to distant locations quicker, they translated the reduced time into contracting space and spoke as if the distant places had gotten closer.
  17. Some of the inventions that changed people’s lives in the late 1800’s include the telephone by Alexander graham Bell, the escalator by Jesse Reno, motion picture by Thomas Edison, the typewriter by Christopher L. Shole and amusement parks by Frederic Thompson.
  18. The tenement had air and light shafts on either side in the center unlike the previous types of tenements which were stuffy and dark. This design made the immigrant’s lives more bearable in their apartments.
  19. Social Darwinism is the belief that some people were destined for power and wealth because they were naturally stronger. Many wealthy businessmen believed in this concept because it justified their existence. Moreover, the wealthy, such as John D. Rockefeller used Social Darwinism to justify monopolies.
  20. A Social Darwinist would say that poverty is passed from generation to generation through heredity. Poverty would continue for as long as poor people existed, and that they did not have a way of getting out of poverty since they were naturally weak.
  21. The philosophy of trade unionists advocated for direct action and sabotage. The philosophies held of the Knights of Labor on the other hand involved secrecy in order to protect the employees from oppression by their employers.
  22. City bosses aided the immigrants with practical assistance in houses, jobs and other benefits. However, this was a strategy to gain voting base from the immigrants to pursue their own goals. The houses that the immigrants were provided with were poorly sanitized. They also lacked proper health care hindered the improvement of the immigrants’ lives.
  23. Overpopulation in their homes prompted immigrants to move to America, whereas others moved to escape the harsh living conditions in their homes brought about by poor harvests, war and famine.
  24. Wars and depressions weakened the economic and social structures of America and helped to redistribute the population of the immigrants within the United States. Moreover, the increase in intermarriages helped in the assimilation into the American culture. However, Americans’ attitude towards the immigrants retarded the assimilation. The Americans believed that members of other racial or ethnic groups could not be assimilated into their culture.
  25. Women in Coney Island started out as victims who had been corrupted by urban decay and lecherous men, transitioned to moral polluters and eventually gained respectability as economic change, ideas about sexuality and popular tastes changed. Ethnic backgrounds often determined the occupational paths taken.Coney Island affected the ethnicity, classes, and gender of the community due to the interaction of people who visited the island. People interacted, shared ideas leading mixed culture. The classes and gender changed gradually.
  26. The people could command some surplus income. Life was affordable, and those unable to meet the cost of living were poor.
  27. The formula for success at Luna Park was to keep the park competitive.
  28. Victorian values derived from Queen Victoria. They included hard work, personal success, duty, seriousness among others. The values improved commercialized entertainment and shopping experiences.
  29. There was a reduced economic activity due to depression. There was an increased cost of borrowing and productivity.
  30. The farmers wanted a variety of currencies. The silver was affordable to farmers. The farmers therefore preferred a silver currency to back the gold currency.
  31. The farmers supported the regulation of railroad because they were meant to maintain the roads in good condition. The condition would improve through government regulation.
  32. The populist had not supported the urban workers, and their agenda was not directly to help the urban workers.
  33. The tin man was meant to represent industrialism and factory workers. The scarecrow represented western farmers. The flying monkeys were used to represented Native Americans and also for poking fun at politicians. The Wicked Witch of the West was killed and represented the politician William McKinley.
  34. The wars were declared on Spain by the US due to a publication by hearst about a stolen letter. The letter repressed contempt for McKinley. The sinking of the U.S battleship Maine in Havana harbor that lost 260 men also led the war being declared.
  35. The Americans had a common duty to work hard toward development. The destiny was towards an improvement of the economy. The dollars had value compared to other currencies in the word. The value of the dollar gave American a competitive advantage. The defense was able and strong due to development in military equipment by the 20th century. Peace gave Americans a confidence to work harder and invest more leading to development.
  36. Strenuous life according to Theodore Roosevelt meant Americans should be hardy frontiersmen who should struggle against all aspects even those that seemed odd. American should accept their responsibilities however hard they are. According to American history, they had to struggle and also increase in number than the foreigners.
  37. The word manhood was relevant in the American-Spanish war. The gendered ideas on citizenship, as well as political leadership, affected jingoism political leaders` wish to wage conflicts.
  38. The American experience in The Philippines after the war changed the American culture to a big tune. For example/ the American experienced a new way of living and they had a hard time adopting in the Philippines.
  39. The social justice differed from social control. Social justice was meant to bring about justice among the people, but social control ended up controlling what individuals could do and what not to do.
  40. Theodore Roosevelt restrained corporations, trusts, and big businesses. The efforts to regulate businesses led to a weakening of some businesses while others became very strong to grow to monopolies. The act led to reduced competition and high prices.
  41. He introduced a measure to control the railroads, enhanced the modification of the tax system, and also introduced conservation programs. He strengthened national railroad regulation law.
  42. The USA entered the war after the Germany decided to resume a submarine warfare on every ship heading to Britain. The German also started sinking the American ships in North Atlantic.
  43. World War I reduced labor due to involvement in War. Women were affected as the war resulted in a decline of peace and led to reduce economic activities. Black Americans were similarly affected on the home front as the war brought no good to anyone.
  44. The CPI was controversial to influence the public opinion the United States of America citizens that the USA did not participate in World War I
  45. The act was intended to unify the nations in the time of war. The act undermined the concept of free speech. Consequently, any word or action was interpreted as disloyal and brought about federal action.
  46. The USA did not agree with the contents of the League of Nations as it linked to a treaty of Versailles. The cost of joining was also very high. The league did not have an army, and this made it appear less powerful.
  47. League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded in 1920. The United States failed to join the League of Nations as it did not want to involve itself in any war unless approved by the Congress.

48.Due to the invention of automobiles and increased freedom among young people they preferred to get to know people personally by going out to restaurants and cinemas to have the fan, and, therefore dating became popular. Dating made life and relations between men and women more fun and they would even exchange gifts and presents.

  1. Paula Fass believed that flaming youth appeared to be rebellious than they were because they were going and adapting well to the changes in the society from the mode of dressing the way they were socializing.
  2. The twenties are referred to as the dawn of the modern age since it is then that major economic changes occurred and major policies that are used today were developed
  3. Installment buying improved the living standards of the Americans as people could now afford more goods without having to pay the full amount instantly. On the other hand when it came to paying the full amount the installment price was higher than the actual amount
  4. The sale of radio went up with this introduction of mass culture, and people realized that it was fast to remit information; Americans were also opened up to new job opportunities and business opportunities.
  5. A movie by the name birth of a nation which featured customs and rituals of people made Klan seem a good thing, also more inflow of black people who expected higher wages led Klan resurge.
  6. Monkey trial was a legal case in which a high school teacher was would accuse of teaching the human evolution theory in schools which was prohibited.
  7. Andrew Mellon was an American banker who came up with tax policies during the 1920’s which helped in reducing public debt. This reduction led to an economic boom.
  8. Margin buying during the great depression referred to a situation where the investor would make an initial deposit with the broker and make up for the balance later. This habit led to overpricing of stocks, and people couldn’t buy them hence its crash.
  9. The government ensured that the banks were insured and hence people had confidence in them and started saving, money stock increased, and expenditure was now more therefore prices increased and deflation would thereby solve.
  10. Bank deposits not insured and thus as banks failed people simply lost their savings hence this led to more depression. High-interest rates also led to people being discouraged from investing.
  11. The Smoot-Hawley tariff passed into law with the main intention of protecting the US domestic farmers against foreign agricultural imports. The effect was the decline in international trade.

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